Extremeophiles and Extreme Environments

Tardigrade Radiation Protection Gene Discovered

Tardigrade Radiation Protection Gene Discovered

A new water bear protein can protect the DNA of human cultured cells from otherwise lethal amounts of radiation damage, say a group of Japanese researchers, providing part of the answer to why tardigrades can live in deadly conditions.

Astrogeology

Earthquakes, Marsquakes, and the Possibility of Life

Earthquakes, Marsquakes, and the Possibility of Life

A new study shows that rocks formed by the grinding together of other rocks during earthquakes are rich in trapped hydrogen -- a finding that suggests similar seismic activity on Mars may produce enough hydrogen to support life.

Astrochemistry

Photochemistry and Astrochemistry: Photochemical Pathways to Interstellar Complex Organic Molecules

Photochemistry and Astrochemistry: Photochemical Pathways to Interstellar Complex Organic Molecules

The interstellar medium is characterized by a rich and diverse chemistry. Many of its complex organic molecules are proposed to form through radical chemistry in icy grain mantles.

Astrochemistry

Detection of Exposed H2O ice on the Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Detection of Exposed H2O ice on the Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Since the orbital insertion of the Rosetta spacecraft, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) has been mapped by OSIRIS camera and VIRTIS spectro-imager, producing a huge quantity of images and spectra of the comet's nucleus.

Proxima Centauri b

A Terrestrial Planet Candidate in a Temperate Orbit Around Proxima Centauri

A Terrestrial Planet Candidate in a Temperate Orbit Around Proxima Centauri

At a distance of 1.295 parsecs, the red-dwarf Proxima Centauri (α Centauri C, GL 551, HIP 70890, or simply Proxima) is the Sun's closest stellar neighbor and one of the best studied low-mass stars.

Proxima Centauri b

Geomagnetic Properties of Proxima Centauri b Analogues

Geomagnetic Properties of Proxima Centauri b Analogues

The recent discovery of a planet around the closest star, Proxima Centauri, could represent a quantum leap on the testability of models in exoplanet sciences.

SETI

Long-term Consequences of Observing an Expanding Cosmological Civilization

Long-term Consequences of Observing an Expanding Cosmological Civilization

Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe.

SETI

SETI at X-ray Energies - Parasitic Searches from Astrophysical Observations

SETI at X-ray Energies - Parasitic Searches from Astrophysical Observations

If a sufficiently advanced civilization can either modulate the emission from an X-ray binary, or make use of the natural high luminosity to power an artificial transmitter, these can serve as good beacons for interstellar communication without involving excessive energy costs to the broadcasting civilization.

Mars

Climate Cycling on Early Mars Caused by the Carbonate-Silicate Cycle

Climate Cycling on Early Mars Caused by the Carbonate-Silicate Cycle

For decades, scientists have tried to explain the evidence for fluvial activity on early Mars, but a consensus has yet to emerge regarding the mechanism for producing it.

Europa

The Surface Temperature of Europa

The Surface Temperature of Europa

Previous estimates of the surface temperature of Jupiter's moon, Europa, neglected the effect of the eccentricity of Jupiter's orbit around the Sun, the effect of the eclipse of Europa (i.e., the relative time that Europa is within the shadow of Jupiter), and the effect of Europa's internal heating.

Extremeophiles and Extreme Environments

Expedition Aims to Answer How Far Beneath The Earth Life Can Survive

Expedition Aims to Answer How Far Beneath The Earth Life Can Survive

A geologist from the University of Aberdeen is taking part in an ocean expedition that aims to discover how far beneath the Earth life can survive.

More top stories from September.